为什么美国女仆的故事不像葫芦

以下内容最初发表于6月15日,2017。

像葫芦一样outstanding使女的故事adaptationwraps up this week,这是值得考虑的基督教法西斯主义在美国崛起的愿景。虽然这部系列片是在唐纳德·特朗普崛起之前制作的,许多的观众andreviewers不禁想知道当前事件是否为Handmaidvision of Christian authoritarianism.

在小说和系列中,美国深受生态问题和不孕不育的困扰。A violent coup by fundamentalist Christians results in the founding of a new state called Gilead,尽管仍有零星的反叛和抵抗。如果这一切听起来有点难以置信,因为这一切都有点难以置信。The US military and law enforcement just seem to dissipate as the Gileadean paramilitary takes control.即使在不太虔诚的波士顿市,抵抗也很快消失了。的确,尽管小说有先见之明,the depiction of the process by which it all happens seems unlikely and remote.

And the novel was prescient.在这样一个时代大多数文学作家had difficulty recognizing the socially and politically resurgent Christian Right for what it was,玛格丽特·阿特伍德了解它的历史,它的公开声明,它的政治力量。The novel was most obviously inspired by the emergent Christian Right's hostility to abortion rights codified byRoe诉Wade1973。But as Aunt Lydia makes clear in the novel,the movement was also 金博宝官网网址about pushing back against the sexual politics of the"六十年代"正如社会学家所说,包括变换性别角色,the sexual freedom permitted by increasingly available birth control,和同性恋。小说的另一个重要批评基督教分离中的基督教右派起源,在此之前的基督教奴隶制被胡卢为了使其演员多样化而被算计地抛弃了。

Since then,白人福音派已经成为共和党的核心投票集团。他们看到这位重生的总统乔治·W·布什时大获全胜。Bush elected in 2000,他们在2016年聚集在唐纳德·特朗普身边,给了他比他们给布什更高的选民份额,John McCain,or Mitt Romney.Despite initial claims to the contrary,white evangelicals who are regular churchgoers are更有可能支持特朗普比那些不经常参加的人多。

但是基督教右派在美国的理念上投入了太多象征性的资本,以至于暴力推翻成为一种选择,我们错过了The Handmaid's Tale如果我们把它读得太过字面化,它将成为我们未来审判的文学地图。基督教右派的关键战略是对美国机构的强烈奉献,and its commitment to remaking those institutions in its own image.在阿特伍德的小说中,正是基督教右派参与其中的成功,盖恩斯才证明了暴力推翻政府的合理性。

这种对美国理念的投资发生在各个层面,但也许最重要的是在国家本身的象征层面上。AS凯文·克鲁斯的作品has recently made clear,美国的概念Christian nation"主要是在20世纪30年代,公司开始寻找愿意的教会伙伴来反对罗斯福的新政政策时形成的。大企业和保守基督教领袖之间的联盟在20世纪50年代的冷战中达到顶峰,as exemplified in the anti-Communist development of slogans such as"上帝统治下的一个国家”和“我们相信上帝。”首先是两党合作,基督教爱国主义在尼克松时期被视为一种特别的共和美德,Carter,以及里根政府。

把美国重新塑造成一个独特的基督教国家的一部分,涉及到把美国历史重新想象成需要一个教派的承诺。在我们的开国元勋的信仰(1987)Tim LaHaye—cofounder with Jerry Falwell of the Moral Majority and co-author of theLeft Behind系列批评历史修正主义”that had taken evangelical faith out of the history of the nation's founding.拉哈伊想要展示的,金博宝体育网投in his own act of historical revisionism,创始者不仅仅是含糊不清的犹太-基督教神,但是,practically,evangelical Christians who would be"comfortable"in"我们今天相信圣经的教堂。”"

这段基督教右翼言论的历史表明,用一个全新的基列国家取代虔诚的美国是多么不可能。金博宝体育网投为什么要从一个新的国家开始,而这个国家已经有了一个历史,起源,and symbolism have been carefully reconstructed into a theologically-devoted nation that can be purified,它的神圣目标终于实现了?什么时候?福尔韦尔和帕特·罗伯逊认为the 9/11 terrorist attacks to God removing his protection from the nation because of"异教徒,还有堕胎者,女权主义者,还有那些积极尝试改变生活方式的同性恋,the ACLU,[and] People for the American Way,"他们从类型上解释美国是被取代的以色列国,上帝与之有特殊关系的国家,如果洛基,关系,有时需要剧烈的修正才能最终实现它的神圣潜能。

所以,if we step back from Atwood's thought experiment and regard it with a wider angle lens,我们可以看到它对我们称之为基督教右派的东西有先见之明金博宝官网网址。独裁倾向,近年来越来越多地展出。It was always the self-conscious nature of the Christian Right to want to impose its ethics across the nation,即使是对外部的人。它不仅要在会众中防止堕胎,但在所有公民中;它希望在公立学校重新加入日常祈祷和神创论,而不仅仅是为基督教儿童,but for all children;它想阻止同性恋行为和婚姻,不仅是为了它的成员,but for all inhabitants in the nation.But its method was to work within politics,在世纪中叶停滞不前后重返政坛。

在它出现后的几十年里,金博宝体育网投然而,the Christian-Right-animated Republican Party has become increasingly authoritarian in its views and methods,violating in particular the democratic norms and the civic culture of Congress.在2000年选举之后,the GOP argued tostop recountingvotes in Florida;when the Republican-majority Supreme Court agreed,它给了佛罗里达州,大选,为重生的乔治W。布什。

近年来,共和党倾向于不把民主党候选人的选举胜利视为授予合法性。共和党据报道做出了决定before President Obama's inauguration,在大萧条以来最严重的金融危机中,to have as他们的首要任务2012年奥巴马的失败,反对他的议事日程,唯一的原则是不让他获得两党立法的胜利。在奥巴马总统任期内,the GOP accelerated its practices ofgerrymandering,选民压制under the guise打击根本不存在的选民欺诈,以及选民名单的清除.In 2016,共和党参议院拒绝履行其宪法义务,对民主党总统的最高法院提名人.

这不是一方尊重其意志的行为。voters";这是一个党的行动,其主要原则是自己权力的正确性。他们是两党学者的成果托马斯曼and奥恩斯坦争论是不对称极化”of an ideologically extreme,坚定的共和党该党继续保护明显不称职的人,dangerous,and corrupt President who fired the FBI director investigating his campaign,妨碍或拖延国会对他的行为和商业交易的所有监督。

这些是专制的,antidemocratic tendencies在共和党,基督教右派影响的结果,as they ultimately proved to be inThe Handmaid's Tale?虽然将这些现象归为单一原因是错误的,the Christian Right worldview is highly apocalyptic and Manichaean,在善与恶之间的宇宙斗争中,一个黑白道德差异的世界。Its animating theology is known as"千禧年前的时代论,"许多信徒期待着一个即将到来的末日启示,在这个启示中,反基督者将展示自己,愚弄世俗群众。

Under such conditions,to obey worldly norms is to disobey the will of God.作为弗兰克·谢弗,the apostate evangelical whose family helped build the Christian Right,,describes,共和党在全国范围内推广原教旨主义伦理的努力与基督教多米尼加主义者更激进的政策重叠,重建主义者,和理论学家。作为克里斯托弗·斯特罗普has also s金博宝体育网投hown,Christian Right leaders have begun to s金博宝体育网投how explicit sympathy for autocratic,Orthodox Russia,highlighting their"shared anti-LGBTQ animus.""

就像古时候的希伯来先知一样,阿特伍德用清晰的眼睛诊断出了我们的精神疾病。There is an authoritarian streak in the Christian Right's willingness to impose its ethics on those outside its group,宗教自由可恶。But dwelling on the story's plot of violent overthrow of the nation will blind us to the Christian Right's crucial strategy of working within the nation's institutions by rewriting their history and claiming for them divine purpose.To be American is to be Christian,it says.忏悔,return,改革是它的策略,而不是革命,即使不是所有的公民都愿意。Under His Eye,它知道什么是最好的。